Alive to Strive

The Alive to Strive Kidney Fitness Project is committed to helping those living with chronic kidney disease maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Event Date: Sunday, April 28, 2019
Location: Terry Fox Athletic Facility
Registration Site: http://alivetostrive.ca/home/

The Alive to Strive Kidney Fitness Project is hosting their 9th annual race event on Sunday, April 28, 2019 at the Terry Fox Athletic Facility. All funds generated as a result of the race will be used to support their “Active Living Grant Program,” benefiting individuals in the Ottawa area living with chronic kidney disease.

Alive to Strive has raised nearly $40,000 for The Ottawa Hospital Kidney Centre in 8 years. Please consider registering as a runner, a walker, or a volunteer.

Click here to register.

The Golf Quest 4 Clinical Trials

Enjoy a round of golf among friends in support of clinical trials at The Ottawa Hospital.

Event date: Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Location: Canadian Golf and Country Club, 7800 Golf Club Way, Ashton, Ontario

Contact: Greg Moore – [email protected]

The Golf Quest 4 Clinical Trials has been designed to be a premiere fundraising golf tournament and charity auction where every dollar raised from the tournament will be leveraged with ten matching dollars from various levels of government, granting agencies and corporate partners!

This year’s event will bring together local business professionals, entrepreneurs and successful individuals with
the capacity and desire to support The Ottawa Hospital, and offers numerous opportunities for partners to
actively participate in the event. Partners will benefit from an affiliation with the top grossing single-day golf
tournament supporting medical research through clinical trials in Canada.

Learn about partnership opportunities here.

Four years after metastatic breast cancer diagnosis, every day is a gift

Jillian O’Connor was 18 weeks pregnant when she was diagnosed with breast cancer and given less than two years to live. In February, she celebrated the fourth birthday of her healthy baby boy and continues to live life to the fullest.

Jillian O’Connor stands in her living room laughing. A small boy hugs her leg, then takes off and disappears down the stairs to play with his older brother and sister. That was Declan. He turned four on February 1, 2019. The fact that his mother saw him blow out the candles on his birthday cake is extraordinary.

When Jillian was 18 weeks pregnant with Declan, she was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She wasn’t expected to celebrate his second birthday. Two and a half years later, Jillian celebrated his fourth birthday with him—and still living life to its fullest.

Jillian O’Connor

The first thing that strikes you about Jillian is her smile. Next, it’s her insatiable enthusiasm for life. Then comes her contagious positivity. Hard not to think the latter alone is why she has made it so far against daunting odds. It may be anecdotal but Jillian definitely thinks, or rather knows, it’s the key.

“I am totally full of cancer, pretty much from my head to my toes,” said Jillian. “Every day I get is a blessing, ‘Oh, I woke up. Perfect!’ You just want to go at it as hard as you can, for as long as you can. Just being optimistic, I think helps. I really believe it helps.”

Jillian’s petite frame belies her light-up-the-room personality. She is gregarious with an enthusiasm that bubbles infectiously out of her. She talks about her cancer matter-of-factly. It is part of her life, but doesn’t rule her. She has other things to focus on—her precious family. The 35-year-old laughs and chats so easily about her life and her journey with cancer that it takes a second to realize how extraordinary her journey has been.

In 2014, Jillian was still nursing Landon, her second child, when she went to see her physician about a blocked milk duct. It turned out to be breast cancer. Doctors wanted to do CT scans to determine the extent of her cancer, but Jillian couldn’t. She was 18 weeks pregnant. Without treatment, she was told she wouldn’t survive to give birth. It was unfathomable. She had a three-year-old daughter and a one-year-old son at home. It was a devastating diagnosis but Jillian met it head on with her own special brand of optimism and determination.

Terminating the pregnancy was not an option for Jillian and her husband David. Her oncologist, Dr. Mark Clemons, told her she didn’t have to. He could provide a chemotherapy cocktail that would keep her cancer at bay without harming her unborn child. Jillian had a mastectomy and a dozen chemo treatments tailored to her special case. On February 1, 2015, she gave birth to a healthy baby Declan.

“I received chemotherapy right up until I delivered him. He was healthy—a wonderful birth weight. He was absolutely perfect,” said Jillian.

After Declan was born, Jillian had scans to see where the cancer was. It had spread, and had metastasized to her bones, liver, and lymphatic system. That was when she was given less than two years.

“Basically, they said, ‘We can’t give you a long timeframe. It’s stage X, so every day you wake up is going to be a gift,’” said Jillian, who stopped working as a nurse at the Queensway Carleton Hospital and became a patient there, receiving treatment at The Ottawa Hospital’s satellite cancer centre, the Irving Greenberg Family Cancer Centre. “Two years passed, then three, and then I passed four years this past summer. I’m hoping I’ll have another 40 plus years. I got a pretty doom and gloom diagnosis, but I continue to pull life off.”

Jillian has pulled life off in a big way. After all, when she brought Declan home from the hospital, she had three children under the age of three to look after. She poured herself into motherhood, enjoying every moment with them. Between weekly trips to the cancer centre for treatment, she was busy changing diapers, making meals, caring for, playing with, and loving her little ones.

Declan and Jillian O'Connor
Four-year-old Declan sits on his mom’s knee.

Declan is back and clambers onto his mother’s knee—for about 30 seconds—before scrambling off onto the couch beside her. He is a typical four-year-old. His big sister Myla, who is seven, and brother Landon, who is five, appear, and the three play on the floor near their mom. Jillian chatters happily with them.

Jillian has celebrated all her children’s early-year milestones: learning to walk, talk, run, play, read, and become independent little people. Both Myla and Landon are now in school. Declan will be joining them in September. In mid-January, Jillian and David registered him for junior kindergarten. Nowadays, while the two older ones are in school, she and Declan have fun hanging out. They fill their days with activities that include volunteering at the school, as well as the more mundane household chores.

“I got a pretty doom and gloom diagnosis, but I continue to pull life off.”

Jillian is exuberant about life. She lives each day as it comes.

“She has, with all the help that modern radiotherapy and medical oncology can offer in Ottawa, in addition to her tremendous personality and drive, done amazingly well in a tragic situation for any young mom,” said Dr. Clemons. “At the same time, she has been involved in practice-changing research that is going to improve the care of patients—she continues to give.”

Over the past four years, Jillian has participated in clinical cancer trials with new therapies that have kept her cancer in check. When it spread to her brain a couple of years ago, she had whole-brain and CyberKnife radiation. Then she was put on new medication that can cross the blood brain barrier, which her regular chemotherapy couldn’t do. The medication halted new tumour growths in her brain. Her cancer is not getting better, but it’s not getting worse, either.

“I’m happy to stay status quo, because there is nothing I want to do that I can’t do right now,” said Jillian.“Status quo—I’m good with that. I feel great. I don’t have aches or pains or anything. I don’t have time to think about how I feel.”

Jillian sits on the floor laughing and playing with her three children. She looks at the little doll her daughter Myla shows her, and hands a ball to Landon. “I really think it’s the kids. They have so much to do with it, because they are so great. They are so fun. They keep me really busy and that’s half the fun. By the time I go to bed at night, I don’t think about cancer. I don’t think about tests coming up. I don’t think about that stuff because I’m too tired. So I think that is helpful.”

Dr. Clemons agrees.

“She is a gem, and her attitude of living life with true meaning is a humbling lesson for all of us,” said Dr. Clemons. “Too many people in society spend too much time moaning about the trivial, as well as things they can’t do anything about. Life is for living, and Jillian encourages people to do that—live!”

Whether it’s thanks to the innovative new treatment she receives or her uber-positive attitude, Jillian has surpassed the original two-year diagnosis by two-and-a-half years.

Dr. Clemons told her, “Whatever you’re doing, keep on doing it—obviously it’s working for you.”

And it is.


We need your help today to give patients like Jillian more time, more memories, more hope. Support our cancer clinical trial research today and help us develop new ways to treat this devastating disease.

More Great Stories

Stem cells may heal lungs of premature babies
A stem cell treatment soon to be tested in clinical trials at The Ottawa Hospital may help heal the lungs of premature babies.
Clinical trial means new options for colorectal cancer patients
Sandy Patenaude participated in a clinical trial of a cancer stem cell inhibitor drug, which successfully prevented her cancer from growing. As a result, doctors are able to determine which patients might benefit from the drug.
Natural killer cells could be immunotherapy game-changer
Scientist discovers other immune cells that have the potential to make immunotherapy treatments work for more people, and more types of cancers.

Clinical trial  means new options for colorectal cancer patients

When Sandy Patenaude’s MRI showed that her colorectal cancer had spread to her liver and lungs, she was asked to participate in a clinical trial of a cancer stem cell inhibitor drug. In Sandy’s case, the drug successfully prevented her cancer from growing.  As a result, doctors  are able to determine which patients might benefit  from the drug.

Three years ago, Sandy Patenaude was given the devastating news that she had stage 4 colorectal cancer. It had spread to her liver and lungs, and was inoperable. Sandy’s oncologist asked if she would like to go on a clinical trial, testing a new cancer stem cell inhibitor drug along with her chemotherapy.

“Cancer stem cell inhibitors, why not?” said Sandy who agreed to be part of the trial.

Dr. Derek Jonker, Medical Oncologist at The Ottawa Hospital, is leading the international trial for people with colorectal cancer, with the experimental drug napabucasin. He explained that cancer stem cells are the rare, immature cells in a tumour, which are often resistant to chemotherapy. They can give rise to the more mature cancer cells that make up the bulk of a tumour. Cancer stem cells are not the same as the normal stem cells that live in many healthy adult tissues and help with healing and repair.

“With chemotherapy, we can deliver treatment that can shrink the vast part of the cancer,” said Dr. Jonker, who is also an associate professor at the University of Ottawa. “Often the bulk of the tumour disappears, but what’s left is a small tumour with lots of these chemo-resistant cancer stem cells, which are able to spread and seed other places in the body. Often, we keep giving the same chemotherapy and find the tumour has regrown, but it’s not the same tumour it was when we started.”

Dr. Derek Jonker
Dr. Derek Jonker led a clinical trial for colorectal cancer with a cancer stem cell inhibiting drug that has helped Sandy Patenaude.

Dr. Jonker is switching up the treatment to target the  cancer stem  cells that aren’t affected by standard chemo. In a previous randomized  clinical  trial he led , patients either  received a placebo or  napabucasin  to test its effectiveness at  inhibiting, or preventing,  the growth of the  cancer stem cells. The trial was carried out at  40  sites in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. The  562  patients enrolled had advanced colorectal cancer  and chemotherapy no longer worked for them.

Looking at the results of the trial, Dr. Jonker said  they didn’t see much benefit in the group overall. “But when we looked at patients who had a  tumour  that  had characteristics of a high cancer stem cell (phospho-STAT3) over expression there was very significant improvement in their survival.”

Dr. Jonker presented his findings in October 2016 at the European Society for Medical Oncology, showing that where the cancer stem cell inhibitor didn’t work in all patients, there was an improvement in the survival of the 22 percent of patients who had  tumours  with high phospho-STAT3.  He said it’s “proof of principle that stem cells are an important target for cancer patients.” Napabucasin is now being combined in the  current trial  with chemotherapy to attack the cancer on two fronts  at the same time.

“We know  with results of the clinical trial that  the majority of  patients did not respond to it, but we have two patients here in Ottawa who  have responded and definitely developed benefit from the clinical agent,” said  medical oncologist Dr. Christine Cripps.

Sandy Patenaude outdoors

“I thought I’d be part of the trial, because I thought well, it’s new.”

Sandy is one of those patients who benefited.  Her tumours shrank,  and the surgeons were able to remove spots in her liver and the primary  tumour in her rectum.  Dr. Cripps said she believes that part of the success in keeping Sandy’s cancer at bay is the napabucasin she is taking as part of  the  clinical trial.

“A stem cell inhibitor works differently than traditional chemotherapy, in that it prevents new disease from  appearing,” said  Saara  Ali, research coordinator for clinical trials in gastrointestinal cancers. “The hope is that the pill [napabucasin] will prevent new disease from showing. And in Sandy’s case there hasn’t been new disease  since her treatment. Everything was there before, so it may be doing its job.”

Next steps: Dr. Jonker hopes to start  another clinical trial with the cancer stem cell inhibitor that will be used specifically for patients who have lots of phospho-STAT3 in their  tumour. These patients could be identified for the clinical trial with molecular testing, using The Ottawa Hospital’s Molecular Oncology Diagnostics lab.  This would target the patients presumed to be the most likely to benefit most from the drug.

“We would repeat our study, randomize those patients with  napabucasin  and a placebo, and if we can prove that  napabucasin is effective for them, then it would be an option for patients who have run out of all other treatment options,” said Dr. Jonker.

Dr. Cripps said that Sandy is a candidate for this next trial,  and her tumours  will be analyzed by the molecular lab to see  whether she has high phospho-STAT3 cancer stem cell expression. Regardless, Sandy will continue using the trial drug as long as it is working for her. And it is working. The mother of three adult children said  she’s busy doing a million things, playing euchre, the ukulele, skiing, hiking, biking, and enjoying life.


The Ottawa Hospital is raising funds for clinical trials,  because  research has proven to be the best way to improve treatments and even find cures for cancer and other devastating diseases.

More Great Stories

Stem cells may heal lungs of premature babies
A stem cell treatment soon to be tested in clinical trials at The Ottawa Hospital may help heal the lungs of premature babies.
Four years after metastatic breast cancer diagnosis, every day is a gift
Jillian O’Connor was 18 weeks pregnant when she was diagnosed with breast cancer and given less than two years to live. In February, she celebrated the fourth birthday of her healthy baby boy and continues to live life to the fullest.
Natural killer cells could be immunotherapy game-changer
Scientist discovers other immune cells that have the potential to make immunotherapy treatments work for more people, and more types of cancers.

Immunotherapy eradicates cop’s cancer

Despite years of treatment to prevent recurrence of skin cancer, Ian McDonell’s melanoma–a disease that killed his brother–spread to his brain and body. In 2017, he started an innovative immunotherapy treatment. A year after finishing immunotherapy, all scans show his cancer is gone.

Ian McDonell was off-duty, walking along a bike path in August, when he saw men fighting. He called the police and tackled one of the men who tried to run away. But Ian’s courageous action is all the more remarkable because the summer before he was bedridden from cancer.

“I thought back to a year ago,” said Ian, “and there’s no way I would’ve even been out walking.”

Back up five years, Ian’s brother was dying of melanoma, and his father had just died of cancer. Ian’s wife insisted he see his physician to check out a mole on his back. It turned out to be an ulcerated nodular malignant melanoma–an aggressive form of skin cancer.

Ian had surgery to remove it and a lymph node from his left groin. Several weeks later, he had a lymph node removed from his armpit. Although he had no signs of cancer, considering his family’s history, Ian was high risk for relapse.

The 47-year-old Staff Sergeant with the Ottawa Police was referred to oncologist Dr. Michael Ong, a specialist in skin and urological cancers at The Ottawa Hospital. After discussing all options, Dr. Ong recommended Ian participate in a clinical trial using a targeted chemotherapy known to dramatically shrink melanoma, and being tested to improve cure rates.

Ian McDonell having his first immunotherapy treatment.
Ian McDonell having his first immunotherapy treatment.

“Immunotherapy does not directly affect the cancer itself. Instead, immunotherapy unmasks the cancer to your immune system.”

Ian took the treatment between November 2013 and August 2014 while still working full time, and continued intensive regular imaging scans after treatment to monitor for relapse. Ian was feeling very well at a standard monitoring visit in June 2017, but shockingly his CT and MRI scans showed sobering news. He had half a dozen tumours in his groin and abdomen, and three more tumours metastasized to his brain. Ian’s cancer was stage 4. Historically, patients with brain metastases live about four months.

Given the severity of the findings, Dr. Ong suggested an aggressive approach–a recently approved immunotherapy treatment.

“The idea of immunotherapy is not new. There have been clinical trials for decades. But only recently have we been extremely successful,” said Dr. Ong, who is also an assistant professor at the University of Ottawa.

Although, the connection between the immune system and cancer has been recognized for over a century, understanding how the immune system works against cancer has been the biggest challenge for scientists.

Initially, efforts were made to stimulate the immune system to make it attack the cancer. But the game-changer was the discovery that there are key molecules, called immune checkpoints, on cancer cells that suppress the immune T-cells, and prevent them from attacking the cancer. These immune checkpoints cloak the cancer from the immune system. New drugs called immune checkpoint inhibitors remove this cloak, and allow the immune system to naturally attack and destroy the cancer.

“The idea of chemotherapy is to kill off cancer directly,” said Dr. Ong. “There are potential side effects, because chemotherapy tries to poison the cancer. In contrast, immunotherapy does not directly affect the cancer itself. Instead, immunotherapy unmasks the cancer to your immune system by flipping some switches on T-cells, and the body’s own immune system does the rest.”

Dr. Michael Ong
Oncologist Dr. Michael Ong said recent immunotherapies are hugely successful for treating melanoma.

Immunotherapy is having the most success in patients with melanoma, like Ian. The first trial that demonstrated its effectiveness with this form of skin cancer was presented at an oncology conference in Chicago in 2010. The study results showed the median improvement in survival time was four months. Dr. Ong said, initially, the findings didn’t seem very impressive.

“It was just another clinical trial report, and four months didn’t sound like a long time,” said Dr. Ong. “But the reported improvement was the median change. What we didn’t realize until later was that while the immunotherapy didn’t work for 80 percent of patients, 20 percent of patients were actually cured of their metastatic melanoma. When data was looked at in 10 years, all of the responding patients were still alive.”

Since then, immunotherapies have been developed and tested in clinical trials that have increased the one-year survival rate for advanced melanoma from 25 to 80 percent.

Ian started on a combination of two immunotherapies, a big advance since 2010 and recently approved for use by Health Canada. He said the immunotherapy treatment is given intravenously in the chemotherapy unit at the hospital’s cancer centre. The whole process took two hours for each treatment, and Ian was scheduled for one dose, every three weeks for four treatments.

Ian did one round, then had CyberKnife radiotherapy treatment. High doses of radiation were directed at his brain tumours. He bravely continued with the second round of immunotherapy, but was so sick, he had to be taken off the treatment and started on steroid medications to slow down the immune system. Ian felt better, but his immunotherapy was on hold.

At the end of September, Ian had some new weakness in his face and there was worry about his cancer getting worse. It wasn’t. His scans showed one tumour had shrunk from 25 to 10 mm, and another tumour had shrunk from eight to four mm.

Dr. Ong said, “Looks like something good is happening here,” and recommended trying a single immunotherapy rather than two. Ian received the treatment in mid-November 2017. He found it extremely challenging again and was very sick.  All his treatments were stopped.

“But it did the trick,” said Ian.

Ian McDonell, his three daughters and wife on the beach
Ian McDonell, his three daughters and wife on the beach

Two months later in January 2018, Ian had a PET scan to assess the status of his cancer. A PET scan uses a radioactive sugar that highlights colour images where the cancer cells are. No colours lit up when Ian had the scan. Then he had an MRI, and there were no signs of any tumours in his brain. All three were gone. In April, he had a CT scan, and another again in July. Nothing showed up on the scans. He was tumour free. All trace of his cancer was gone.

At an appointment after the last scans, Dr. Ong told Ian that when he had first seen him in 2013, options for immunotherapy or targeted chemotherapy weren’t available. Four years later, thanks to incredible advances in immunotherapy, there was hope.

“In the last five years, we’ve gone from having very poor options to having many effective options for melanoma. That’s because cancer therapy continues to develop at a very rapid pace,” said Dr. Ong. “We, at The Ottawa Hospital, are constantly participating in practice-changing clinical trials. The standard of care is constantly changing, as it should. We are constantly trying to push the limits of cancer treatment.”

The Ottawa Hospital is a leader in cancer immunotherapy research, both in terms of developing new therapies and in offering experimental treatments to patients. Currently, there are 69 active cancer immunotherapy clinical trials being conducted at the hospital. Dr. Ong currently has 50 patients on immunotherapy clinical trials, but there are hundreds of patients on similar active clinical trials at The Ottawa Hospital.

People with melanoma skin cancer are young: 30 to 50. Melanoma that involves lymph nodes is very aggressive, and historically 50 percent of patients will have a relapse and spread of melanoma. However, new treatments, including immunotherapy, have between a 43 and 53 percent reduction in the risk of recurrence.  At The Ottawa Hospital, many patients are participating in a study to see if two immunotherapy drugs are better than one to reduce the chance of relapse even more.

As a result of successful immunotherapy treatments, patients like Ian are now faced with survivorship issues. Living without cancer.

Ian found he had to rethink what he wanted to do. He has been on sick leave from the Ottawa Police Services since August 2017 when the cancer returned.

“When the provincial exams for police services came up, I said, ‘I’m gonna write it, because I’ve got a bit of hope now.’ I wrote the inspector’s exam and I passed,” said Ian.

Immunotherapy has given the father of three his life back and a future to see his family grow up. He’ll also continue to tackle more crime.

The Ottawa Hospital is also conducting basic and translational research in immunotherapy. For example, Dr. Michele Ardolino recently made a breakthrough in understanding immunotherapy, which could allow this approach to work for many more people with cancer.

Read more about immunotherapy research.


As research has proven to be the best way to improve treatments and even find cures for cancer and other devastating diseases, The Ottawa Hospital is raising funds for clinical trials.

More Great Stories

Stem cells may heal lungs of premature babies
A stem cell treatment soon to be tested in clinical trials at The Ottawa Hospital may help heal the lungs of premature babies.
Four years after metastatic breast cancer diagnosis, every day is a gift
Jillian O’Connor was 18 weeks pregnant when she was diagnosed with breast cancer and given less than two years to live. In February, she celebrated the fourth birthday of her healthy baby boy and continues to live life to the fullest.
Clinical trial means new options for colorectal cancer patients
Sandy Patenaude participated in a clinical trial of a cancer stem cell inhibitor drug, which successfully prevented her cancer from growing. As a result, doctors are able to determine which patients might benefit from the drug.

Stem cell treatment banishes disease for MS patient

John Chafe had a job in a bank with the goal of running it one day. But his plans were sidetracked by  an aggressive form of  multiple sclerosis (MS).  In 2001, he became the second person in a world-first clinical trial  of its kind  that virtually eliminated  any new  MS  activity and stabilized his disease.

A strange thing happened before John Chafe started working in Kenora in 1993. His eyes crossed. He didn’t know it at the time, but it was the first sign of a debilitating disease.

His family doctor told him he had the flu and prescribed antibiotics. But after a week, when his eyes remained crossed, he bought an eye patch and drove five hours from Thunder Bay to fill the temporary posting at a bank in Kenora. A week later, his eyes straightened and returned to normal.

“I had a transfer to Niagara Falls a few months later. I then started have difficulties walking straight. I completely failed a simple balance beam experiment at the Ontario Science Centre,” said John. “I mentioned these symptoms to a friend, who mentioned them to a friend, who fortunately happened to be Dr. Heather MacLean, a neurologist at The Ottawa Hospital.”

She said these symptoms sounded like multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system attacks its own central nervous system, brain, and spinal cord. John needed an MRI and spinal tap to properly diagnose his symptoms. He was back in Thunder Bay, but the hospital there did not yet have an MRI machine, so he had to go to Duluth, Minnesota. In April 1995, John took his MRI to an appointment with neurologist and multiple sclerosis specialist Dr. Mark Freedman at The Ottawa Hospital. Dr. Freedman confirmed the diagnosis. John had multiple sclerosis.

“The first actual drug licensed for MS didn’t come into effect in Canada until 1995, and there was nothing available to patients then,” said Dr. Freedman who is also a senior scientist at the hospital and professor of medicine in the field of neurology at the University of Ottawa. “John did take that first drug, interferon, as soon as it was available. He tried at least one other interferon for a while, but the writing was on the wall that he would’ve done very poorly in the absence of something miraculous. His MS was very aggressive.”

John had originally gone to Lakehead University in Thunder Bay because he was an active outdoor enthusiast: seriously into rock climbing and downhill skiing. However, John realized that a career in the financial industry was more lucrative than being a ski instructor. He graduated with degrees in business and economics, and working in banking supported his outdoor activities.

John Chafe skiing
John Chafe skiing at Blackcomb just after diagnosis in 1994.

John didn’t give up his active lifestyle after being diagnosed, either. Despite the fact that he was having MS exacerbations (an attack that causes new MS symptoms, or worsens old symptoms) every eight months. He returned to Thunder Bay and opened a rock climbing gym, thinking, “MS is not going to affect me.”

But it did. It  completely sidetracked his life.  In  1998,  the then  30-year-old  sold his  rock climbing business and transferred  to  a branch in  Ottawa.

John Chafe rock climbing
John Chafe rock climbing outside Thunder Bay in 1994 after his MS diagnosis.

After suffering another MS exacerbation, John realized it was becoming more difficult for him to get out to see clients for financial planning sessions.

“I was stumbling along and thought, ‘How can I ask them to trust me with their money?’ My MS was getting worse and worse,” said John. “I needed a desk job, so I went into computer programming.”

His regular treatments weren’t helping either. He needed a miracle.

One day, John heard Dr. Freedman on the radio talking about an innovative stem cell transplant study that he described as akin to pressing reboot on the immune system. Dr.Freedman was working with hematologist and scientist Dr. Harold Atkins (also a professor of medicine at University of Ottawa) to see if a groundbreaking treatment would halt an aggressive form of MS.

Coincidentally, John had an appointment with Dr. Freedman that afternoon. He told him he was very interested in participating in the study. Dr. Freedman agreed he might be a candidate because he was young, generally healthy, and his symptoms were quickly getting worse.

“If you saw his trajectory, how fast he was becoming disabled going into the transplant.  He should’ve been completely wheelchair bound, or worse, within two to three years,” said Dr. Freedman.

Dr. Harold Atkins and Dr. Mark Freedman
Dr. Harold Atkins and Dr. Mark Freedman conducted an innovative stem cell treatment for MS that has halted the disease in over 50 patients

“What we’re doing is getting rid of the old immune system and creating a new one that behaves more appropriately.” – Dr. Harold Atkins

John was willing to try an experimental treatment that had the potential to change that trajectory. “MS robbed me of my ability to climb, ski, and walk. I said I’m gonna take a chance.”

“John was very enthusiastic. That was a very important facet of his recovery,” said Dr. Freedman. “John has never been a quitter. He’s a stubborn guy. His goal was someday to end up on the ski hill again.”

For almost a year, John underwent the exhaustive testing by Dr. Atkins and Marjorie Bowman, the bone marrow transplant nurse, to see if he was physically suitable for the clinical trial. They  also  wanted to  ensure he was  mentally prepared to go through the  intensive  trial  treatment  and  accept the risks, which included  death.

“This is fundamentally different than every other treatment,” said Dr. Atkins. “What we’re doing is getting rid of the old immune system and creating a new one that behaves more appropriately.”

“MS robbed me of my ability to climb, ski, and walk. I said I’m gonna take a chance.”

Replacing his immune system was a rigorous procedure.  John  would undergo intensive chemotherapy to  help  eliminate  his immune system. There was a possibility of  chemo-induced infertility, so he  banked some  sperm.  In November 2001, he  was first given  a  dose of chemotherapy to stimulate and move his  stem cells into his blood stream.  These stem cells were then collected  and cleansed of any traces of MS.

A  month later,  John was given huge doses of chemo  in an  attempt to  destroy  his immune system. He said he  started getting weaker and weaker, and felt like death warmed over.  On December 13, 2001, after the chemo  had wiped out his immune system,  John had the cleansed stem cells  re-infused by an  intravenous  drip.

“I didn’t feel  better immediately,” said John, who had become just the second patient in the world to undergo a stem-cell transplant  of this kind  for multiple sclerosis.  “But  I started getting stronger in the days following, so much so that  Dr.  Atkins released  me on Christmas Eve.” He  spent three months living with his parents. By spring, he was ready to move back into his own home again.

Dr. Freedman said that he and Dr. Atkins had anticipated that by rebooting  MS patients’  immune systems, they fully expected the disease was going to restart.

“At  that time, genetic researchers said, ‘If people are genetically prone to develop MS, there’s nothing you can do to stop it. They’re going to keep redeveloping MS,’” said Dr. Freedman. “If that was true, it would be a matter of time before people started having active disease again.”

Dr. Freedman explained that nobody knew what causes MS.  He and Dr.  Harold  Atkins hoped that through the trial they  could reboot  a  patient’s  immune system and monitor it  with all  the  latest immune  system  monitoring  and  imaging technology,  and then watch  as the  disease restarted and discover  the  secret of what triggers MS. However,  none of  the 24 patients in the  trial  developed  new symptoms of  MS  again.

“In that respect,  the trial  was a failure. It halted their disease and in some cases their disabilities went away too,” said  Dr. Freedman. “We’ve followed these patients for 18 years, and nobody’s developed anything.”

“Those patients at the beginning, like John, are probably the bravest because there were more unknowns about the treatment,” said Dr. Atkins. “Each patient we’ve treated over the years has taught us something, but we learned more from the early patients at that time.”

Prior to his stem cell transplant, John had a final  exacerbation,  which crippled him. After  the transplant, his MS did  not return. John  remained  healthy, but the damage  caused by the disease  wasn’t reversed and he still walks using a cane and walker.

“You almost wonder what would’ve happened to John if  he’d  had  the transplant five  years earlier,” said Dr. Freedman. “Today, when we see a patient that has the same profile as John’s, we offer them the stem cell treatment. We’re not waiting years. We’ve become more savvy, able to pick out individuals who warrant this aggressive  approach.”

John Chafe with his daughter Mary and wife Patricia
John Chafe with his daughter Mary and wife Patricia in 2013.

About 77,000 Canadians live with MS. However, only five percent of patients with MS warrant a stem cell transplant. They are generally young and have the most aggressive and debilitating forms of the disease.

After his transplant, nothing was going to hold John down. Three years later, John met Patricia, and they married in 2005. Five years later, his beautiful daughter Mary was born.

“I recall that as Mary started moving more, she motivated me to get more active again. She became my personal trainer,” said John. “I joined the Canadian Association of Disabled Skiing. I was terrible at first because I didn’t have the strength.  But I’m stubborn and refused to give up, and today I can ski independently for hours – albeit with outriggers for balance.”

John Chafe skiing with his family
John Chafe, Mary and Patricia skiing at Edelweiss in 2016.

“I saw John a few years ago. The problem with this business is patients get better and so I don’t see them much afterwards,” said Dr. Atkins. “I do remember him showing me pictures of his young baby, and pictures of him on the ski slope. It is exciting to hear that people can have these treatments and go skiing again.”

Although John and 23 others participated in the clinical trial, 56 MS patients have now undergone this innovative stem cell transplant therapy. The made-in-Ottawa treatment has halted all relapses and three quarters of patients have not had further disabilities develop. Even more impressive is the fact that 40 percent of patients had recovery from some of their disabilities. People who are interested in this therapy should speak with their own neurologist, who can request a referral to The Ottawa Hospital MS Clinic. Other hospitals in Canada are also starting to set up similar programs, based on the success in Ottawa.

“I’m not a bank president, but my life is better than incredible. I ski, I dance with my wife, and have an eight-year-old daughter,” said John. “Because Dr. Freedman and Dr. Atkins were persistent about finding the answers to stop a disease like MS, they saved my life.”

The following video focuses on Jennifer Molson who was also one of the early patients on the MS clinical trial, and includes interviews with Drs. Atkins and Freedman.


The Ottawa Hospital is raising funds for clinical trials, as research has proven to be the best way to improve treatments and even find cures for multiple sclerosis and other devastating diseases.

More Great Stories

Stem cells may heal lungs of premature babies
A stem cell treatment soon to be tested in clinical trials at The Ottawa Hospital may help heal the lungs of premature babies.
Four years after metastatic breast cancer diagnosis, every day is a gift
Jillian O’Connor was 18 weeks pregnant when she was diagnosed with breast cancer and given less than two years to live. In February, she celebrated the fourth birthday of her healthy baby boy and continues to live life to the fullest.
Clinical trial means new options for colorectal cancer patients
Sandy Patenaude participated in a clinical trial of a cancer stem cell inhibitor drug, which successfully prevented her cancer from growing. As a result, doctors are able to determine which patients might benefit from the drug.

Cancer Research at The Ottawa Hospital

The Ottawa Hospital has earned an international reputation for leadership in cancer research. From unmatched expertise in oncolytic viruses to revolutionizing the clinical trials process, we are changing what we know about cancer and how we treat it.

The Challenge

When you’re diagnosed with cancer, time is critical and every minute counts. The wait for surgery, for treatment, for life to get back to normal, can seem agonizing. Time is equally critical in the world of cancer research. Every day, scientists are working to find new therapies. The sooner these therapies can be delivered to patients, the better their chances for recovery.

At The Ottawa Hospital, our patients have access to the very best doctors and therapies when they need it the most. Our world-leading research draws experts from around the world to work in our facilities, to help us revolutionize every aspect of cancer care, from improving treatment to saving the lives of patients with diseases that only a few years ago would have been untreatable.

Over the next 15 years, Canadians will see a 40 percent increase in cancer diagnoses with almost one in two developing cancer in their lifetime. Our ability to translate research into patient therapies coupled with one of the best-equipped cancer centres in the country means we are well-positioned to face this challenge head-on.

Our Vision

We believe cancer can be beaten. Our cancer and research centres have been ranked among the best in the world and from here we’re seeing results that a decade ago were deemed impossible to achieve. Together, our people and our facilities have created a breeding ground of knowledge for the best and brightest medical minds in the world. We’re confident that if we stay the course, cancer will be beaten.

Why The Ottawa Hospital

We’re already one of the largest research and learning hospitals in the country. And we didn’t get there by thinking small and in the short-term. The plan was simple: recruit the best and brightest minds in science and health care, bring them together under one roof, find the answers to health care’s biggest challenges. And we were right. Our world-renowned facilities, researchers, medical professionals and clinical trials are the best of the best, so they attract the best of the best. We’ve already made tremendous breakthroughs and there’s more to come. The world is watching what’s happening at The Ottawa Hospital.

“We, at The Ottawa Hospital, are constantly participating in practice-changing clinical trials. The standard of care is constantly changing, as it should. We are constantly trying to push the limits of cancer treatment.” – Dr. Michael Ong

Our Research Successes

Dr. John Bell in his research lab

2000: Dr. John Bell discovers that a virus, called VSV, can kill cancer cells without harming normal cells. In 2011, his group publishes a landmark study in the prestigious scientific journal Nature showing the results of his world-first clinical trial based on this discovery.

Dr. Rebecca Auer

2017: Dr. Rebecca Auer’s personalized vaccine, made with cancer cells infected with a cancer-fighting virus, cured abdominal cancer in animal models. Dr. Auer is preparing a clinical trial based on these findings.

Dr. Caroline Ilkow

2018: Dr. Carolina Ilkow and her team first demonstrate that cancer cells use a unique approach to fight off viruses. Her team then builds a virus that blocks this defence mechanism. Proving very effective at killing normally resistant cancer cells, this may lead to better, more broadly effective immunotherapy treatments.

Your Impact

The impact that one person can have on the future of health care is huge. The impact a group of like-minded community leaders can have on the future of health care is limitless. Thanks to donor support we’ve built one of the largest and busiest regional cancer treatment centres in the country. We have one of the only oncolytic virus manufacturing facilities in the country that trains modified viruses to kill cancer cells. We have technology like the CyberKnife that performs non-invasive day-surgery procedures on previously inoperable and often terminal brain tumours. Our state-of-the-art breast health centre has dedicated diagnostic machines to speed up the treatment process, clear backlogs, and help more people get back to healthy lives. These are only a few examples of how donors have changed the face of health care. We specialize in matching donors who want to help with those who need their help the most.

Cancer Research Update 2018-2019

Research To Improve Patient Care

Dr. Dean Fergusson

2014: Drs. Dean Fergusson and Mark Clemons launch the world-leading REaCT (Rethinking Clinical Trials) program to quickly asses available cancer treatments and streamline clinical trials enrollment. With fewer than three percent of patients enrolling before REaCT, enrollment now exceeds 90 percent. By the end of 2017 this program enrolled more breast cancer patients in clinical trials than all other trials in Canada combined.

Dr. Glen Goss

2016: Dr. Glen Goss leads an international clinical trial showing that 70 percent of patients with a certain kind of lung cancer respond to a new targeted therapy. This therapy is now available as a standard treatment in Canada.

Dr. Natasha Kekre

2018: Dr. Natasha Kekre is leading the charge to bring a “made-in-Canada” version of CAR-T cell immunotherapy to The Ottawa Hospital. Shown to completely eliminate some advanced pediatric blood cancers, this revolutionary treatment removes a patient’s T-cells and modifies them in the lab to attack cancer cells. The Ottawa Hospital is the only site in Canada manufacturing these cells and among the first to participate in clinical trials of this therapy.

The Ottawa Hospital Foundation is raising money for research that is revolutionizing the care we provide patients.

Be Inspired

Inspired giving means more than giving to kidney research
When Phil Downey’s kidneys failed, his wife Gail, his three adult children and two step children “threw in the hat,” and volunteered to donate their kidney. Two generations were so inspired by the care Phil received that they then made a donation to kidney research at The Ottawa Hospital.
Extraordinary volunteer recognized with GG medal
Mike Baine’s extraordinary volunteerism with The Ottawa Hospital Foundation was recognized with a Governor General’s medal.
From patient to volunteer—’a little conversation could make a huge difference’
Two volunteers took Fran Cosper for a coffee when he was a patient at The Ottawa Hospital Rehab Centre and it inspired him to also volunteer when his condition allows.

Regenerative medicine and stem cell research

The Ottawa Hospital’s Regenerative Medicine Program is a major centre for the growing area of stem cell research. It is home to more than 250 research staff, working under the leadership of world-renowned stem cell biologist Dr. Michael Rudnicki.

The Challenge

Can human stem cells be harnessed to rebuild the heart after a heart attack? Restore vision to the blind? Reconnect a broken spinal cord? This is the promise of regenerative medicine and the life’s work of more than 250 scientists, clinical investigators, trainees, and staff in The Ottawa Hospital’s Regenerative Medicine Program. Today our teams relentlessly pursue answers to the world’s most challenging health care problems. Tomorrow holds even greater promise as our researchers harness regenerative medicine to pioneer made-in-Ottawa personalized therapies and treatments. Our big ideas are becoming the future of patient care and people are turning to us to solve the world’s greatest health care challenges.

Our Vision

Our researchers continue to discover and harness the incredible power of human stem cells to rebuild, repair, and heal a wide range of medical issues. Stem cells offer the potential to repair the heart after a heart attack, restore vision to the blind, reconnect a broken spinal cord, regenerate brain tissue after a stroke, repair damaged insulin-producing tissue in diabetics, and heal tissues damaged by severe infectious diseases.

We are leading the world in developing new therapies that use living cells and viruses to treat disease. Our groundbreaking work includes numerous world-first clinical trials of cancer-fighting viruses and stem cells. We’re also exploring gene-enhancing stem cells to repair a heart after a heart attack, stem cells to treat septic shock and exosomes, previously thought to be cellular junk, that may be able to help us understand, diagnose, and treat acute myeloid leukemia.

Our patients deserve the best and need us to continue to innovate and provide hope, and our global partners expect nothing less from us.

“We’re entering a new era. More and more we are going to see regenerative medicine use cellular and molecular tools to treat devasting diseases with no current therapy.” – Dr. Michael Rudnicki, Director, Regenerative Medicine Program and Sprott Centre for Stem Cell Research

World Firsts

Dr. Duncan Stewart, CEO & Scientific Director, OHRI

2013

Launched the first clinical trial of a gene-enhancing stem cell therapy to repair the heart after a heart attack.

Dr. Atkins and Dr. Freedman

2014

First to use stem cells to send “stiff person syndrome” into long-term remission.

Dr. Lauralyn MacIntyre

2017

Pioneered the use of stem cells to fight deadly septic shock infection, using stem cells to halt the sepsis and repair damage to affected organs.

Why The Ottawa Hospital

The Ottawa Hospital’s Regenerative Medicine Program is a major centre for the growing area of stem cell research. The program includes the Sinclair Centre for Regenerative Medicine, the Sprott Centre for Stem Cell Research, the Vision Research Centre, and also serves as headquarters for Canada’s Stem Cell Network.

A multidisciplinary culture makes our Regenerative Medicine Program unique in Canada, if not the world. Here, developmental, cell, and molecular biologists work together with bioinformaticists, clinical scientists, and clinicians, in teams and common facilities. Collectively they leverage each other’s work to impact clinical care and translate new discoveries into treatments that can be tested in clinical trials. In fact, the Ottawa Hospital is one of the largest research hospitals in Canada with more than 600 active clinical trials.

Your Impact

According to Dr. Michael Rudnicki, Director of The Ottawa Hospital’s Regenerative Medicine Program, “Stem cell research in Canada is now reaching the point where clinical practice will be impacted in exciting and unforeseen ways.” Thanks to the generous support of our donors, world-class researchers are making discoveries, developing new treatments, and transforming lives–in short, revolutionizing the care we provide patients–every day.

You can have a profound impact in the revolutionary world of regenerative medicine. Your support of The Ottawa Hospital’s Regenerative Medicine Program propels forward our researchers who are working to discover and harness the power of human stem cells to rebuild, repair, and heal a wide range of medical issues.

“Caring for a newborn with severe sepsis is heartbreaking. Current treatments are limited, and antibiotic resistance makes it even more difficult to treat…What we see in the lab is very promising. We think stem cells are going to be a game-changer for these babies.” – Dr. Bernard Thébaud, Senior Scientist, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute

Dr. Daniel Coutu, Research Chair, Regenerative Orthopaedic Surgery
Dr. Daniel Coutu, Research Chair, Regenerative Orthopaedic Surgery

Star researcher in regenerative medicine helps blaze a trail to effectively halt the degenerative process

“Ottawa is the place to be for stem cell research,” said Dr. Daniel Coutu. He should know. He’s a bone stem cell expert recruited from Switzerland.

Dr. Coutu leads research to help understand how bone regenerates, repairs, and heals. He also investigates the impact trauma, aging, and chronic degeneration has on bones.

Dr. Coutu was part of a team in Switzerland that took on this challenge and developed microscopy techniques to enable scientists to analyze bone and see where stem cells are and what they do. “Because of these techniques, we are just starting to understand the fundamental biology of bone stem cells,” he said.

Dr. Coutu is now the inaugural holder of the Research Chair in Regenerative Orthopaedic Surgery, and based at The Ottawa Hospital’s Sinclair Centre for Regenerative Medicine.

Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cells Research Update

Stems cells make dream come true

When Jennifer Molson was 21 years old, she dreamed of becoming a police officer, marrying her boyfriend and dancing at her wedding. Those dreams were shattered when she was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Over a period of six years she had multiple relapses. She was in a wheelchair, unable to work, and looking for a miracle. That’s when Drs. Mark Freedman and Harry Atkins from the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute told her about an experimental treatment using stem cells. Jennifer became the sixth patient in a groundbreaking clinical trial during which stem cells were extracted from her bone marrow and transplanted back into her body. Jennifer found her miracle. Today she no longer needs a wheelchair. She is off medication, works full time, and leads an independent life. And, yes, she married her boyfriend and danced at her wedding.

The Ottawa Hospital Foundation is raising money for research that is revolutionizing the care we provide patients.

Be Inspired

Stem cells may heal lungs of premature babies
A stem cell treatment soon to be tested in clinical trials at The Ottawa Hospital may help heal the lungs of premature babies.
Four years after metastatic breast cancer diagnosis, every day is a gift
Jillian O’Connor was 18 weeks pregnant when she was diagnosed with breast cancer and given less than two years to live. In February, she celebrated the fourth birthday of her healthy baby boy and continues to live life to the fullest.
Clinical trial means new options for colorectal cancer patients
Sandy Patenaude participated in a clinical trial of a cancer stem cell inhibitor drug, which successfully prevented her cancer from growing. As a result, doctors are able to determine which patients might benefit from the drug.

Parkinson Research at The Ottawa Hospital

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s, affecting at least 100,000 Canadians. Only through a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that cause it can effective treatments be developed.

Imagine not being able to control a trembling in your hands and limbs, the inability to speak loudly, losing your sense of smell, dealing with unexplained pains. Unfortunately, these are just a few of the symptoms affecting Parkinson’s disease patients every day.

More than 100,000 Canadians live with Parkinson’s, including 8,000 here in Ottawa. Parkinson’s is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects voluntary, controlled movement. The exact cause of the disease is unknown. Discovered almost 200 years ago, there is still no cure or proven treatment available to slow its relentless progression. People can develop Parkinson’s disease at any time in their life.

“Our society will be faced with many more patients with Parkinson’s over the decades to come. In many ways Parkinson’s is complicated and also complex. I strongly believe that although it’s complex and complicated, we can solve that riddle. We have the expertise in Canada to make a major contribution to a cure for this disease.” – Dr. Michael Schlossmacher, Senior Scientist, The Ottawa Hospital Canada Research Chair in Parkinson Disease and Translational Neuroscience

PIPR logo in red on white background

Partners Investing in Parkinson Research (PIPR)

In 2009, a group of investment advisors from the Ottawa financial community formed Partners Investing in Parkinson Research (PIPR). The group set a goal of raising $1 million in support of research to better understand and diagnose Parkinson’s. Over seven years, it has successfully raised more than $1,000,000.

Co-chaired by Roberta Driscoll of RBC Dominion Securities and Kim Teron of Teron Inc., PIPR members reach out to the community at large to raise vital funds to support leading edge Parkinson Research at The Ottawa Hospital.

PIPR has provided important base funding to the scientists, allowing them to leverage further grants. The advancements have been impressive. PIPR has not only helped to fund research for the treatment and cure of Parkinson’s disease, it has galvanized the community to support the cause that previously received little attention. Above all, the PIPR team has given hope to those who live with this unremitting disease.

See us on CTV and in the Kitchissippi Times – PIPR. Click here to read more about PIPR.

Parkinson Research at The Ottawa Hospital

Researchers at The Ottawa Hospital and the University of Ottawa came together in 2004 to form the Parkinson Research Consortium under the leadership of Dr. David Grimes and Dr. David Park. The consortium brings together clinicians and scientists from various disciplines to improve our understanding of Parkinson’s disease, conduct novel and innovative research, and develop new treatment options, with the ultimate goal of developing a cure.

Parkinson Research Update

Recent Milestones

  • Developments in understanding how genes contribute to onset and progression of the disease.
  • Development of innovative therapeutic strategies including targeted gene therapy.
  • Development of an experimental spinal fluid test to improved diagnosis.
  • Discovery of a new genetic mutation that makes some people more susceptible to this disease.
  • Development of a new mouse model that mimics a familial form of early on-set Parkinson’s disease.
  • Publication of Canada’s first Parkinson’s care guidelines.

Support Parkinson Research

Support the ongoing research efforts by making an online donation, or by calling 613-761-4295. For more information about the research or how to join the team, contact Margot Lefebvre, Manager, Philanthropy, at 613-798-5555, ext. 19819, or [email protected].

The Ottawa Hospital Foundation is raising money for research that is revolutionizing the care we provide patients.

Section 1.10.32 of ``de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum``, written by Cicero in 45 BC

“Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur? Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur?”

News

Events

Fashion for Compassion
Apr 27 - 2019 — Support Cancer Research at The Ottawa Hospital with Wholesale Outlet 4 Women
Alive to Strive
Apr 28 - 2019 — The Alive to Strive Kidney Fitness Project is committed to helping those living with chronic kidney disease maintain a healthy lifestyle.
The Golf Quest 4 Clinical Trials
Jun 18 - 2019 — Enjoy a round of golf among friends in support of clinical trials at The Ottawa Hospital.

Stories

Four years after metastatic breast cancer diagnosis, every day is a gift
Jillian O’Connor was 18 weeks pregnant when she was diagnosed with breast cancer and given less than two years to live. In February, she celebrated the fourth birthday of her healthy baby boy and continues to live life to the fullest.
Clinical trial means new options for colorectal cancer patients
Sandy Patenaude participated in a clinical trial of a cancer stem cell inhibitor drug, which successfully prevented her cancer from growing. As a result, doctors are able to determine which patients might benefit from the drug.
Natural killer cells could be immunotherapy game-changer
Scientist discovers other immune cells that have the potential to make immunotherapy treatments work for more people, and more types of cancers.